From the introduction: “André Loiferman is president (CEO) of Brasília Guaíba, an engineering and construction firm based in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil that has built roads, power plants, dams, ports, pipelines, bridges, airports, and other projects in Brazil and other South American countries. Mr. Loiferman is also active with Junior Achievement Brazil, an educational outreach organization that teaches entrepreneurship to young people.”
“Lo que la Ética Empresarial Puede Aprender del Emprendimiento.” [HTML] [PDF]
Stephen R.C. Hicks
Departamento de Filosofía y Centro para la Ética y el Emprendimiento
Rockford University, Illinois, USA
Publicado por primera vez en The Journal of Private Enterprise 24(2), 2009, 49-57.
Traducido al Español por Walter Jerusalinsky, Idóneos, 2013.
Resumen: El emprendimiento se está estudiando cada vez más como un fenómeno económico fundamental y fundacional. Sin embargo, ha recibido menos atención como fenómeno ético. Gran parte de la ética empresarial contemporánea asume que sus propósitos centrales en el campo de aplicación consisten en (1) detener las prácticas depredadorasen los negocios y (2) fomentar la filantropía y la caridad por medio de las empresas. Ciertamente la depredación es inmoral y la caridad encuentra su lugar en la ética, pero ninguna de las dos cosas debe ser su primera preocupación. En cambio, la ética empresarial debería fundamentarse en los valores y las virtudes de los emprendedores, es decir, esos individuos productivos y responsables por sí mismos que crean valor e intercambian con otras personas para mutuo beneficio, ganar/ganar.
Illinois State University professor Terry Noel’s 24-minute video lecture on “Management and Entrepreneurship.” Dr. Noel discusses the elements of management — planning, organizing, leading, controlling — including examples from Moses, Chinese warfare, Adam Smith, Eli Whitney, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Frederick Taylor, Michael Taylor and Jay Barney — and management’s connection to entrepreneurship, with discussion of David McLelland, Joseph Schumpeter, William Gartner, several myths of entrepreneurship, and why in the future entrepreneurial thinking will be crucial for everyone in business.
Robert Salvino (Economics, Coastal Carolina University) spoke at Rockford College on “Entrepreneurship and Public Policy.” In this follow-up interview, Salvino and I discuss entrepreneurial success traits, the institutional framework within which entrepreneurship best flourishes, the relative success of market-friendly versus government-chosen entrepreneurship policies (including examples such as Google, Apple, Solyndra, etc.), the effect of employer-provided healthcare on self-employment rates, Salvino’s suggested general entrepreneurship-friendly public policies, and China’s success in lifting 600 million people out of poverty over the last generation.
I found it an exciting read, in part because I teach business ethics and philosophy of economics and I’m used to being immersed in the mainstream perspective, much of which I disagree with. So it was refreshing to find a kindred approach in Kling and Shulz’s economics that emphasizes:
* The foundational role of entrepreneurs, rather than seeing workers as performing pre-existing functions. (”Entrepreneurs are the heart of the economy, pumping innovation through the system.”)
* Consequently, starting one’s economic analysis with production, not welfarist distribution. (E.g., “although the supply of physical matter on earth is finite, the number of ways to re-arrange matter is infinite.”)
* Studying real human agents, not simplified abstractions that fit one’s models. (E.g., economists “should study economic history to give meat and sinews to the formal models that they’re studying, so that we do not become, God forbid, a branch of applied mathematics.”)
* Highlighting the importance of intangible resources and the knowledge economy, not simply the material resource economy. (E.g., “the average citizen in many advanced industrial nations has over $400,000 in intangible net worth.”)
* That plenty, not scarcity, is normal. (As the authors put it pithily: “To understand the plight of the workers a century ago, we’d read The Grapes of Wrath; to understand the plight of the workers today, we watch Supersize Me.”)
* That, consequently, win-win social relations are normal and the proper benchmark, not the usual expectation of zero-sum.
Kling and Schulz have put it together in a highly readable public intellectual book that draws upon and makes accessible the scholarly work of Douglass North, Robert Fogel, Joel Mokyr, Robert Solow, and Paul Romer.
The layout of the book is also intriguing and well done, alternating between explanatory essays on key economic themes and interviews with major economists: North, Fogel, Romer, Solow, Mokyr, along with William Easterly, Amar Bhide, William Lewis, William Baumol, and Edmund Phelps.
So get this book and learn about what the authors call Economics 2.0.
On March 28, Terry Noel, Professor of Management and Quantitative Methods at Illinois State University, will visit Rockford College to give two talks: “The Virtuous Entrepreneur” and “Entrepreneurship and Management.” Dr. Noel is the author of Empty Nest Egg and a frequent speaker on entrepreneurial themes.
Contact Virginia Murr at CEE@Rockford.edu for more details.